# Electric Charge Là Gì

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Static is generated when two objects made of different electrically neutral materials liên hệ và then separate.Quý Khách đã xem: Electric charge là gì 1) Contact between objects A and B

Electrically neutral objects A and B (with equal quantities of positive và negative charges)

2) Transfer of charge

When metals contact each other, electrons move from one with a smaller work function to one with a larger work function. In other words, metal with a smaller work function will be charged positively & one with a larger work function negatively.

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3) Separation between objects A and B

Object A is charged negatively & object B positively.

Figure 1. Static generation due to contact charging

Static is generated when two objects contact and then separate. The combination of the two objects may be solid và solid, solid and liquid, or liquid & liquid. Figure 2 shows examples. Figure 2. Examples of static generation

All the above sầu phenomena involve sầu tương tác between two objects và their separation. Figure 3. Examples of charging

Friction between two objects in a triboelectric series causes the object in the upper position of the series khổng lồ be charged positively và that in the lower position lớn be charged negatively. Friction between two objects positioned far apart (C) also generates a larger amount of static than ones closer lớn each other (B) and much closer lớn each other (A) (A

### When an object is charged

When an object is charged electrostatically, an electrical field is generated around the charged object, as illustrated in Figure 4. Figure 4. Electrical field generated around charged objects

Starts from a positive sầu electric charge và ends in a negative electric chargeLines bởi not intersect each otherDoes not branch offThe electrical field is svào when lines of electric force are denseThe electrical field is unikhung when lines of electric force are parallelComes out of (enters into) the surface of a conductor vertically (a) Lines of electric force between objects with different electrical polarities

(b) Lines of electric force between objects with the same electrical polarity

Figure 5. Lines of electric force formed between two charged objects

Lines of electric force are virtual lines used lớn visualize an electrical field. Their use shows the state of an electrical field formed between two charged objects, making it easy lớn picture the state of static, which is actually invisible. For example, Figure 6 shows lines of electric force between two objects with different quantities of electric charge. It shows lines of electric force that apply khổng lồ a case where the quantity of electric charge Q.1 of charged object A is smaller than the quantity of electric charge quận 2 of charged object B. Because the size of the two charged objects is the same, the number of lines of electric force per unit surface area of charged object A is smaller than that of charged object B, and electrical field E2 is stronger than E1.

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E1: Strength of electrical field on a conductor surface

Density of lines of electric force: Low à Electrical field is weak

Charged conductive sầu sphere A

E2: Strength of electrical field on a conductor surface

Density of lines of electric force: High à Electrical field is strong

Charged conductive sầu sphere B

Figure 6. Lines of electric force from two charged conductors with different quantities of electric charge

### What is electrostatic force (Coulomb force)?

Electrostatic force (Coulomb force) is the source of an electrostatic phenomenon. As Figure 7 shows, the direction of the force between two charged objects differs according to lớn whether the objects have different electrical polarities or the same electrical polarity. Electrostatic force is an attractive sầu force (a) when the polarities are different & a repulsive sầu force (b) when the two objects have the same electrical polarity.

(a) Force between objects with different electrical polarities

(b) Force between objects with the same electrical polarity

Figure 7. Electrostatic force between two charged objects

As Formula (1) shows, the strength of the electrostatic force (Coulomb force) is proportional to the sản phẩm of the quantities of the electric charge of the two charged objects & inversely proportional khổng lồ the square of the distance between the two objects.

F ∝Q1・Q2/r2 ・・・・・・・・・・・・(1)

### Electrostatic induction is also caused by electrostatic force

Figure 8. Electrostatic induction caused by electrostatic force

### Electrostatic discharge is also caused by electrostatic force (Coulomb force)

Figure 9. Generation of electrostatic discharge caused by electrostatic force

The electrical field around the charged object causes the negative ions (electrons) therein lớn be accelerated by the electrostatic force (Coulomb force), thereby having kinetic energy (wv). When these negative ions strike gas molecules in the electrical field & the following formula is true,

Ionization energy of the gas molecules

electrons are sputtered from the gas molecules, resulting in generation of negative sầu ions and positive sầu ions. The gas molecules are ionized if the negative ions thus generated are subject khổng lồ action of the electrostatic force và the negative ions are accelerated in the electrical field with its kinetic energy meeting the condition expressed in formula (2) above sầu. Repetition of this process results in generation of electrostatic discharge.

### Charge distribution of a conductor is also influenced by electrostatic force (Coulomb force)

1) Electric charges given khổng lồ an electrically neutral conductor are distributed on the conductor’s surface. In other words, electric charges given vày not exist inside the conductor.Suppose that a conductor is given four negative sầu electric charges, thereby charged negatively, as Figure 10 shows. If the four charges are given inside conductor (a), electrostatic force (repulsive sầu force) works aước ao them, forcing them to be distributed on the conductor surface.

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Figure 10. Distribution of electric charges on a charged conductive sầu sphere

(a) Conductor with surface potential distribution

(b) Electric charges that are distributed in a way that makes the conductor surface equipotential

Figure 11. Electric charges are distributed on a conductor surface in a way that makes the surface equipotential.