Sleep Deprivation Là Gì

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Many people do not get enough quality sleep, and this can affect their health, well-being, and ability to do everyday activities.


The right amount of sleep can vary from person to person, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that adults get at least 7 hours each night. They also estimate that 1 in 3 adults do not get enough sleep.

Occasional interruptions to sleep can be a nuisance, while an ongoing lack of quality sleep can affect a person’s performance at work or school, their ability to function day to day, their quality of life, and their health.

This article looks at the effects of sleep deprivation and how to treat and prevent it.


How much sleep do people need?

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Share on PinterestCaring for another person at night may lead to sleep deprivation.
The CDC recommend the following amounts of sleep in every 24-hour period:


AgeHours of sleep
4–12 months12–16, including naps
1–2 years11–14, including naps
3–5 years10–13, including naps
6–12 years9–12
13–18 years8–10
18–60 years7 or more

Learn more with our sleep calculator.

It is important to consider quality, as well as quantity, of sleep. If a person has low-quality sleep, they feel tired the next day, regardless of how many hours they have slept.Low-quality sleep may involve:

waking often during the nightan environment that is too hot, cold, or noisyan uncomfortable bed

What are some home remedies for sleep apnea?


Symptoms of sleep deprivation

A person who is getting too little quality sleep may experience a range of symptoms, including:

irritabilitymood changes difficulty focusing and rememberinga reduced sex drive
Effects on the body

Sleep deprivation can affect various aspects of health, including:

The brain: Sleep deprivation affects the prefrontal cortex, which handles reasoning, and the amygdala, which deals with emotion. A lack of sleep may also make it harder for a person to form new memories, which can affect learning.Fertility: Poor sleep may affect the production of hormones that boost fertility.

Increased risk of accidents

A lack of sleep can limit the ability to:

pay attentionreact quicklymake decisions

A person who gets too little sleep may have a higher risk of drowsy driving, which can lead to accidents. In one survey, 1 in 25 adults in the U.S. said that they had fallen asleep at the wheel within the last month. People should not drive or use machinery if they feel drowsy.


Long-term effects and complications

In the long term, having too little sleep may increase the risk of:

sleep apnea
Causes

There are many reasons why a person may not get enough sleep. Examples include:

meeting deadlinesa sleeping environment that is noisy or not the right temperatureusing electronic devices close to bedtime or keeping them in the bedroomcaring for another person during the night

Health issues that commonly disrupt sleep include:

substance misusedepressionanxietyobesitysleep apnea

What is the link between depression and sleep?


Treatments

There are many ways to support quality sleep, including counseling, lifestyle and environmental adjustments, medications, and alternative therapies.

Sometimes, a person also needs treatment for an underlying health condition.

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Behavioral and cognitive treatments

Some approaches that do not involve drugs include:

Medications

Some people find that sedative-hypnotic medications help. Some options available in pharmacies include:

doxylamine (Unisom)

These are also available for purchase online.

If over-the-counter medications are not effective, a doctor may prescribe:

zolpidem (Ambien)butabarbital (Butisol)temazepam (Restoril)

They may also recommend treatment for an underlying condition, such as anxiety.

It is essential to follow a doctor’s instructions, as some of these medications can cause adverse effects or be habit-forming.

Learn more about sleeping pills here.

Home care strategies

Changing sleeping habits and the sleep environment can often help. A person can:

Try going to bed and waking up at the same times every day, even on the weekends, with the goal of establishing a routine.Avoiding eating 2–3 hours before bedtime.After trying to fall asleep for 20 minutes, get up and read, then try again later.Keep the bedroom quiet, dark, and cool.Turn off electronic devices and keep them away from the sleeping area.Use a mouth guard to manage bruxism.

If these measures do not help, a person should see a healthcare provider, especially if getting too little sleep is affecting the quality of life.

Some people find that devices help, including mouth guards, white noise machines, anti-snore devices, sleep trackers, wedge pillows, and other products. These are available for purchase online.

However, there is no guarantee that any of these will work.

Find more tips for better sleep here.

Alternative therapies

Examples include:

meditationAyurveda

There is not enough evidence to confirm that any of these therapies work, although melatonin has shown promise in older adults.

Learn more about the effects of melatonin here.

Always check with a doctor before trying any new remedy. There may be adverse effects or interactions with medications.

A number of options are available online.


A doctor, possibly a sleep specialist, starts by asking about:

how much sleep the person getstheir sleeping habitscauses of disruption, such as shift workexisting health conditions and medications

Keeping a sleep diary can help a person provide detailed information, which can help the doctor recognize the full extent of the problem.

Useful information can include:

when the person wakes up and goes to bed every dayhow much sleep they getwhether they take naps and, if so, for how longa description of the sleeping environmentactivities leading up to bedtime, such as watching TV

A partner may be able to identify any snoring, gasping, or limb-jerking during sleep, which can indicate sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome.

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The doctor may request a sleep study, or polysomnogram. This involves sleeping in a laboratory while a machine measures breathing, pulse, heart rate and rhythm, muscle activity, and brain and eye movements.